Discuss in Detail The Five Steps of The Creative Process as Described by Csikszentmihalyi in His Book ‘Creativity: The Psychology of Discovery and Invention’.

by Aminat Abubakar – Saturday, May 27, 2017

The uniqueness of the human nature in both strength and weakness makes it difficult for people to have uniformity in reaching a novel idea or product. Nevertheless, there are common traits in the way people approach and solve problems creatively. Csikszentmihalyi posits five steps of the creative process, which are preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation, and elaboration. He further explained, “Creativity is any act, idea, or product that changes an existing domain, or that transform an existing domain into a new one” (1996, p. 28).

1. Preparation is the first step during the period when one becomes deeply involved, knowingly or unknowingly in a set of problematic issues that are interesting and arouse curiosity.
2. The second stage is the Incubation period. This is when ideas are beginning to stir up below the level of unconsciousness. Such ideas began to emerge when we want to solve problems and we start processing information in a linear, logical manner. This leads to an unusual connection, thus the path to creativity.
3. The third process leads to Insight or the “Aha!” moment. This is when the puzzle of our thought falls into place.
4. Evaluation is the fourth stage in the creative process. This is the crossroad when we have to decide if the insight is valuable to pursue or not. A period of reflection through self-criticism of soul-searching on whether such idea is accepted by our colleagues and the domain.
5. The fifth step is evaluation; the most difficult and time-consuming process. “Edison stated that creativity consists of 1 percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, p. 80).

An example of a creative process is building a house. The architect first puts his thought in drawing to come up with a design that would transform into a beautiful house. When it is time for the process of starting the foundation the architect or the builder discovers a structural problem. The architect has to adjust the drawing back and forth until there is satisfaction by both parties; finally, the process now transformed into a beautiful house. Csikszentmihalyi defines a creative person as “Someone whose thoughts or actions change a domain or establish a new domain” (1996, p. 28).

The five steps offer a simplified and relatively valid way to bring together intricacies involved in the creative process. The creative process involves hard work.

Are you ready to harness your creativity? Let us start now!

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: The Psychology of Discovery and Invention (1st ed.). New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.

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Course Reflection and Feedback: Leadership and Emotional Intelligence

by Aminat Abubakar – Tuesday, May 16, 2017

My journey to becoming a thought leader in the second term of the doctoral program started with Emotional Intelligence. The course taught me about self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management towards becoming a successful leader in my decisions and actions.

Taking a course on the Leadership Challenge exposed me to the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership Model composed of Model the Way, Inspired a Vision, Challenge the Process, Enable Others to Act, and Encourage the Heart. I learned skills needed to successfully overcome future challenges as a leader.

Then came the Strength-based Leadership course along with the StrengthsFinder assessment. The assessment provided a better perspective on my strengths as a thought leader of the future. In addition, understanding and investing on the strengths of individual employees on job performance and organizational growth.

My “Aha!” moment came during the Leadership Challenge project assignment, with the realization that the bane of the leadership challenge in Nigeria, my country was in the failure of “Model the Way” a disease that seems to infect many weak leaders as being witnessed by the massive exposure of corruption.

Dr. Sehba Husain is a great instructor and was very patient with the cohorts. She continued with the inclusion of visual aids in her lectures, as well as made class discussions easy to follow.

Just like the first term, the tradition continued with Dr. Michael Petty, and Dr. Sheb Bishop joining in class lectures, and providing us with their different perspectives; quite enriching indeed.

As for my fellow cohorts, it has been an interesting class as we continued to support each other. I enjoyed the class picnic, thanks to Dr. Husain and Aric Easterling.
Still, my appreciation goes to the core instructor Dr. Sheba Husain, as well as Dr. Michael Petty, and Dr. Sheb Bishop.

I look forward to the third term class as I journey into becoming a future ready and future smart thought leader.

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Discuss In Detail, Your Strength Based Leadership Report (The CliftonStrengths Assessment). Why Do You Think It Is Important For Leaders To Invest In The Strengths Of Self And Others

by Aminat Abubakar – Monday, May 15, 2017

Gallup came up with four distinct domains of leadership strengths based on a study carried out on thousands of leadership teams, which are: (1) Executing, (2) Influencing, (3) Relationship Building, and (4) Strategic Thinking. Further research posited 34 Clifton StrengthsFinder themes grouped in the four domain of leadership strength. Gallup found that teams strive better when there is a representation of strength in each of the four domains.

The results of my personalized five Clifton StrengthsFinder themes report from Gallup, (2017) were:
1. Executing: Responsibility and Arranger
2. Relationship Building: Connectedness
3. Strategic Thinking: Intellection and Learner

Leadership Strengths Insights

My Personalized Report
I read to stimulate my mind and examine new ideas and unfamiliar points of views. People turn to me for guidance and help them see situation or problem from a different perspective. I appreciate individuals who share my commitment to search for the truth; and update my thinking about the key issues facing individuals and humankind. I gather new ideas, discover new approaches, hear about new theories, consider new concepts, or apply new technologies. I discover innovations and the team member who usually acquires lots of information by perusing all kinds of written material that include newspapers, books, memos, and electronic documents.

Leading with Intellection
People strong in the Intellection theme are characterized by their intellectual activity. They are introspective and appreciate intellectual discussions.

Leading Others with Strong Intellection
Encourage this person to find long stretches of time when she can simply muse. For some people, pure thinking time is not productive, but for her, it most certainly is. She will emerge from quiet periods of reflection with more clarity and self-confidence. Have a detailed discussion with this person regarding her strengths. She will probably enjoy the introspection and self-discovery. Give this person the opportunity to present her views to other people in the department. The pressure of communicating her ideas to others will force her to refine and clarify her thoughts. Be prepared to team up a person with someone who has strong Activator talents. This partner will push her to act on her thoughts and ideas.

My Personalized Report
I conduct myself in an exceptionally mature and orderly fashion and place a premium on doing everything correctly. Whatever am involve in must represent accuracy and precision because my high standards demand exactness. I am consistent in my core values and predictable in my actions. People are likely to know that I go to great lengths to do things right and to behave in an ethical manner. I am dependable because of my strengths for others know they can rely on me. I am committed to the resolution of an assignment; as a result, others trust my completion of assigned tasks. People are held to the highest moral standards and those that break the law be required to accept the consequences of their deeds.

Leading with Responsibility
People strong in the Responsibility theme take psychological ownership of what they say they will do. They are committed to stable values such as honesty and loyalty.

Leading Others with Strong Responsibility
As much as possible, avoid putting this person in team situations with lackadaisical colleagues.
Recognize that this person is a self-starter and requires little supervision to ensure that assignments are completed. Put this person in positions that require unimpeachable ethics. She will not let you down. Periodically ask this person what new responsibility she would like to assume. It is motivational for her to volunteer, so give her the opportunity. This person may well impress you with her ability to deliver repeatedly, leading you to consider promoting her to management. Be careful. She may prefer to do a job herself than being responsible for someone else’s work, in which case she will find managing others frustrating. It might be better to help her find other ways to grow within the organization.

My Personalized Report
I possess the physical and mental endurance needed to spend hours studying, reading, or researching. My diligence reflects the need to work harder and longer than most people can. I am motivated, set lofty goals and relentlessly pursue them; prefer to push myself rather than relax. I tend to investigate whenever I experience a personal or professional loss, make a mistake, or experience failure; and never rest until I find answers to my questions. I desire to deepen my understanding of various topics, opportunities, problems, solutions, situations, events, or people. Because of these strengths, I see myself as a contributing member of the group and have an ability to figure out how everyone on the team can benefit from each other’s knowledge, skills, experiences, or wisdom. I enjoy collaborating with intelligent people to exchange information, share observations, or offer tips for doing things more easily, efficiently, or swiftly. In essence, I become a student of the job as well as the institution’s opportunities, problems, challenges, shortcomings, or resources. I hope to lead a big organization one day. Methodically, acquire the knowledge and skills needed to apply for this role when it becomes available.

Leading with Learner
People strong in the Learner theme have a great desire to learn and want to continuously improve. In particular, the process of learning, rather than the outcome, excites them.

Leading Others with Strong Learner
Position this person in roles that require her to stay current in a fast-changing field. She will enjoy the challenge of maintaining her competency. Regardless of this person’s role, she will be eager to learn new facts, skills, or knowledge. Explore innovative ways for her to learn and remain motivated, or she may start hunting for a richer learning environment. For example, if she lacks opportunities to learn on the job, encourage her to take courses at the local college. Remember, she does not necessarily need to be promoted; she just needs to be learning. It is the process of learning, not necessarily the result, which energizes her. Encourage this person to become the master or resident expert in her field. Arrange for her to take the relevant classes to accomplish this. Be sure to recognize her learning. Have this person work beside an expert who will continuously push her to learn more. Ask this person to conduct internal discussion groups or presentations. There may be no better way to learn than to teach others.

My Personalized Report
I enjoy working and studying with people whose backgrounds, cultures, talents, or experiences are quite different from one another. I am the one who determines how each individual can contribute to the group. Because of my strengths, I notice that members of my group often ask me to share my convictions, conclusions, or values on a variety of topics, people, issues, or situations. I am known to be a hard worker but willing to accept help from individuals who possess the talents, knowledge, and/or skills needed to overcome obstacles. I resist the temptation to interfere in the efforts of these people once they begin making progress. I acknowledge and applaud the unique contributions of my teammates. I derive much satisfaction from reaching goals, finishing assignments, and accomplishing whatever is expected.

Leading with Arranger
People strong in the Arranger theme can organize, but they also have a flexibility that complements this ability. They like to figure out how all of the pieces and resources can be arranged for maximum productivity.

Leading Others with Strong Arranger
This person will thrive when given a new challenge, so give her as much as you are able to, according to her knowledge and skill levels. This person may well have the talent to be a manager or supervisor. Her Arranger talents enable her to figure out how people with very different strengths can work together. Pay attention to this person’s other top themes. If she also has strong Discipline talents, she may be an excellent organizer, establishing routines and systems for getting things done. Understand that this person’s modus operandi for team building is through trust and relationship. She may well reject someone who she believes is dishonest or does shoddy work.

My Personalized Report
Because of my strengths, I routinely isolate facts that link ideas, events, or people due to sensitivity to how one person’s optimistic or negative thoughts can affect the entire human family. This prompts me to pay close attention to what individuals and groups think and do. Instinctively, I frequently engage in laborious tasks. I seek to dedicate myself to worthy causes or noble purposes that give my life special meaning. It is very likely that I might choose to join groups whose members discuss ethic, philosophy, or the consequences of current events. I sometimes link together ideas no one else ever considered pairing. I believe that everything in life is somehow interrelated and interdependent; this strengthens me to calmly face most of the life’s challenges and difficulties. I believe that harming another human being eventually harms oneself – “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” (Adams, 2014). Misusing the environment has personal consequences. This perspective on life influences your thoughts, actions, decisions, or choices.

Leading with Connectedness
People strong in the Connectedness theme have faith in the links between all things. They believe there are few coincidences and that almost every event has a reason.

Leading Others with Strong Connectedness
This person is likely to have a spiritual orientation and perhaps a strong faith. Your knowledge and, at the very least, acceptance of her spirituality will enable her to become increasingly comfortable around you. This person may be receptive to thinking about and developing the mission for your organization. She naturally feels like she is part of something larger than herself, and she will enjoy contributing to the impact of an overall statement or goal.

Importance of Leadership Investment in the Strengths of Self and Others
It is very important for an individual to recognize his/her strength, we are all different, and act differently based on our personalities. The awareness of your strengths gives you better perspectives on your capabilities, which enables you to excel on things you are good at doing on the job or in your personal life. Understanding your strength would empower you to work on your weakness and limitations. As a leader, you would know how to reach out to others to compensate for your weakness with their strengths in order to build a strong team.

When Dr. Donald O. Clifton was asked about his discovery on his leadership strength research of over three decades; his response was:

“Leader needs to know his strength as a carpenter knows his tools, or as a physician knows the instruments at her disposal. What great leaders have in common in that each truly knows his or her strengths – and can call on the right strength at the right time. This explains why there is no definitive list of characteristics that describe all leaders” (Rath, p. 13, 2008).

When leadership within the organization recognizes and invests in the strength of each individual employee, the organizational performance level increases by 73% (3 in 4 employees). However, when leadership fails to recognize and invest in their employee’s individual strength performance level increase by 9% (1 in 11 employees).

When we invest in self and become self-aware of our strength, it boosts our self-confidence, performance, and overall well-being. The collective result leads to increase in productivity and engagement of employees towards successful achievement of organizational goals as well as having a healthy work environment.

In 1979, Tim Judge and his colleague Charlice Hurst carried a 25-year longitudinal study on self-evaluations of 7,660 men and women between the ages of 14 – 22. The researchers discovered that “people with higher self-confidence in 1979 ended up with higher income and career satisfaction in 2004” (Rath, p. 15, 2008). While those with low self-esteem recorded three times as much in health problems.

The most effective leaders invest in their own strengths as well as their employees. Such leaders make sure they pick the right people to avoid a round peg in a square hole situation; and understand their employee’s needs. “Engagement and strengths orientation together create a culture that fosters high performances,” says Sorenson (2014).

This shows the important role leadership plays in the recognition, and investment on their personal strengths as well as on each individual employee’s strengths in creating a successful organizational growth.
Do you know your leadership strength as a leader? What are you waiting for?


Adams, K. (2014, September 28). Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Retrieved from https://u.osu.edu/group5/2014/09/28/do-unto-others-as-you-would-have-them-do-unto-you/
Gallup. (2017). Strengths. Retrieved from http://strengths.gallup.com/default.aspx
Rath, T. (2008). Strengths-Based Leadership: Great Leaders, Teams, and Why People Follow. New York, NY: Gallup Press.
Sorenson, S. (2014, February 20). How Employees’ Strengths Make Your Company Stronger. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/businessjournal/167462/employees-strengths-company-stronger.aspx?version=print

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Discuss How Emotional Intelligence Drives the Organizational Performance

by Aminat Abubakar – Tuesday, April 4, 2017

In 1998, Daniel Goleman brought to fame Emotional Intelligence (EI) theory in terms of organizational and job performance. Daniel Goleman defines EI as “The capacity for recognizing our own emotions and those of others, for motivating ourselves and others, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationships” (Husain, 2017).

Goleman, (2015, p. 6) posited five components of EI: Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Motivation, Empathy, and Social skill. The first three components are self-management skills, and the last two components relate to a person’s ability to manage relationships with others.

Keyser, J. (2013, June 11) explains, “Self-management is our ability to use awareness of our emotions to stay flexible and direct our behavior positively and constructively. Relationship management is our ability to use our awareness of our own emotions and those of others to manage interactions successfully.”

EI leaders influence and engage teams that tap into the human side resulting in inspired and motivated employees. Such trait leads to excellent job performance and overall successful achievement of organization goals, and profitability. It builds trust and loyalty, and employees tend to agree with one another. It reduces workplace stress and infighting, it attracts great talents and reduced talent turnover in the organization. It plays a very important role in a satisfactory relationship with stakeholders.

In an article, “Are emotionally intelligent employees worthwhile?” Green (n.d.) stated that a research by Ben Palmer et al, a leading Australian researcher into emotional intelligence, has found that employees with higher levels of emotional intelligence have less absenteeism —thus do not cost you as much money, and do not cause as many disruptions in the workplace.

EI in the healthcare sector delivers a more effective patient care. When taught in schools, educates the youth who become successful in learning and life. On a personal level, it creates contentment in an employee life and family, an increase in employee well-being.

So, take the step now towards the improvement or development of your emotional intelligence.


Goleman, D. (2015). “What Makes a Leader?” HBR’s 10 Must Reads on Emotional Intelligence (p. 1-21). Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.
Green, R. (n.d.). Are emotionally intelligent employees worthwhile? Retrieved from http://www.theeiinstitute.com/emotional-intelligence-work/
Husain, S., Dr. (2017). Leadership and Emotional Intelligence. Lecture presented at Stratford University in Falls Church, Virginia.
Keyser, J. (2013, June 11). Emotional Intelligence Is Key to Our Success. Retrieved from https://www.td.org/Publications/Blogs/Management-Blog/2013/06/Emotional-Intelligence-Is-Key-to-Our-Success

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Course Reflection and Feedback

Course Reflection and Feedback: Qualitative Research and Academic Writing
by Aminat Abubakar – Wednesday, 8 March 2017

As I reflect on my experience, I was overwhelmed at the start of class with the amount of work needed. However, I had to settle in once the class progressed. I benefited from a number of things on completion of BUS 801 Qualitative Research and Academic Writing class. The course not only taught research method and writing, but I gained insight on business development through constructive implementation of the business model, value proposition, and being a smart future ready leader.

course feedbackDr. Sehba Husain was very patient with cohorts; her inclusion of visual aids in her lectures as well as class discussions made it easy to follow.

I enjoyed both Dr. Michael Petty and Dr. Sheb Bishop lectures which were very interactive in the research class. I watched and listened on various business topic, each instructor giving their own perspectives. Hence, instead of having one viewpoint we gained richly by having diverse standpoints.

My hurdle was speaking in class and was very nervous to stand in front of the class to make a presentation. Nevertheless, was gradually able to overcome the weakness by the end of the course.

There was great comradeship amongst the cohorts, each was ready to offer support to one another when needed.

Overall, the research course prepared me for subsequent class research work assignments in the doctoral program and application of knowledge to my future business consultancy service. Furthermore, my appreciation goes to the core instructor Dr. Sehba Husain, as well as Dr. Michael Petty, and Dr. Sheb Bishop.

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Ethics in Context of Scholarly Research

Discuss Ethics In Context Of Scholarly Research.
by Aminat Abubakar – Sunday, 26 February 2017

Mack, Woodsong, Macqueen, Guest, & Namey explain, “Research ethics deals primarily with the interaction between researchers and the people they study. Professional ethics deals with…collaborative relationships among researchers, mentoring relationships, intellectual property, fabrication of data, and plagiarism” (2011, p. 8). Because of the involvement of the human subject in research, Nancy Walton, Ph.D. noted that it raises unique and complex ethical, legal, social, and political issues (https://researchethics.ca/what-is-research-ethics/). Researchers encounter authorship issues in the course of their research due to the involvement of the human subject whereby they have to uphold professional, institutional, and federal standards.

In an article (Five principles of research ethics) Deborah Smith identified APA’s Science Directorate five recommendation to help researchers avoid ethical quandaries.

  1. Discuss intellectual property frankly from the onset to avoid future disagreement on a project. It is unethical to use someone’s published or unpublished research work without citation of the originator.
  2. Be conscious of multiple roles, Deborah Smith further explained that psychologist should avoid relationships that could reasonably impair their professional performance, exploit, or harm others.
  3. Follow informed consent rules so that participants know that participation is voluntary and are aware of the risks and benefits.
  4. Respect confidentiality and privacy, it is very imperative to uphold every individual’s right to confidentiality and privacy.
  5. Tap into ethics resources in order to avoid ethical dilemmas.

Dr. Sehba Husain last class lecture (2/25/2017) on research ethics, further stated honesty in data collection and reporting as well as openness with colleagues, research sponsors, or the public. The researcher should be open to criticism. Research work has to be objective without any element of bias. There must be responsible publication and not limited to personal career growth but also to advance research and scholarship. Uphold integrity, responsible mentoring, and respect for colleagues, peers, and competitors. Research work should be thorough in order to avoid careless errors and negligence. Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students based on sex, ethnicity, or other factors not related to scientific competence and integrity. Be aware of social responsibility when undertaking research work, and abide by relevant governmental and institutional laws, rules, and regulations.

In conclusion, adherence to ethics in research work sets boundaries, safeguard researchers, students, and the integrity of research work. Also protects human beings, animals, and the environment through transparency.

Ethics in Research


  1. Laurendug (Director). (2012, March 9). ETHICS in RESEARCH [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDzS6T1k7Zk
  2. Mack, N., Woodsong, C., Macqueen, M. K., Guest, G. & Namey, E. (2011). Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide. Retrieved from https://www.fhi360.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/Qualitative%20Research%20Methods%20-%20A%20Data%20Collector’s%20Field%20Guide.pdf
  3. SMITH, D. January 2003, Vol 34, No. 1. Five principles for research ethics: Cover your bases with these ethical strategies. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan03/principles.aspx
  4. Walton, N., Ph.D. What is Research Ethics? Retrieved from https://researchethics.ca/what-is-research-ethics/


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The Important of Revising Scholarly Piece of Writing

Why is it important to revise the scholarly piece of writing?
by Aminat Abubakar – Sunday, 19 February 2017

Revising is the most important aspect of writing. The writers’ first written draft is mostly their first point of thought on what to write. Booth, Colomb, & William explained, “You must first know what readers look for, then determine whether your draft helps them find it…you have to analyze your draft objectively” (2008, p. 203). Revising involves taking a critical look at the whole structure of the paper, and see if there is a balance. In addition, to find out if the argument is correctly placed in the introduction, does the paper deliver on the topic, are the paragraphs coherent, do the sentences flow smoothly into the next; as well as check spelling and punctuation.

During revision, the writer has three things in mind for the reader. Where the introduction stops, where the conclusion begins, and which sentence states the main topic in the paper. Revising a paper helps the writer in the identification of the substances in the argument and the evaluation of the quality of work.

Real revision requires that you open yourself up to the possibility that parts of your paper – and even your entire paper – might need to be re-thought, and re-written, (www.dept.washington.edu).

Three-step revision process


  1. Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (2008). The craft of research (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN: 860-1400125373.
  2. Pattheprofessor (Director). (2008, January 11). Three-step revision process [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezI42BqJ4d4
  3. Revising Your Paper. Retrieved from https://depts.washington.edu/owrc/Handouts/Revising%20Your%20Paper.pdf
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How to Write an Appealing ‘Call For Action’

Discuss in detail how to write an appealing ‘call for action’.
by Aminat Abubakar – Sunday, 19 February 2017

A call to action in persuasive writing is a request to the reader to complete a task or work for a solution to support the position of the writer (www.reference.com). The call to action should educate, inspire, and compel the reader to take action. In order to appeal to the reader, the writer needs to define the exact action be taken such as to support a cause, a need for a change, or a request for an action. For example, a call to action may ask the readers to write a letter to a member of Congress in support of a policy or funding for a program (www.reference.com).

The writer needs to appeal to the emotions of the reader through the art of persuasion on the value or benefit of such action to the reader. Use powerful words that resonate with the reader to trigger the completion of your desired actions (Kasen James).

B2B Tech Writer further states other steps to take in writing appealing calls to action. Tailor the call to action to the content towards the direction you want the reader to go. Keep it short and simple; do not add new information to the section that is not already in the body of content. The call to action is meant to be the final push. Be specific on what you want the reader to act on, the more specific the call to action, the better the response. The writer should give a reason for the call to action while creating a sense of urgency that prompts the reader to take action immediately.

Book Writing Tips #8 – Calls to Action


  1. B2B Tech Writer. 5 Practices for Writing Appealing Calls to Action. (2014, August). Retrieved from http://kc-communications.com/5-practices-writing-appealing-calls-action/
  2. Kasen James. How to Write Call-To-Actions. (2015, July 8). Retrieved from http://www.verticalrail.com/kb/how-to-write-call-to-actions/
  3. Pound, L. (Director). (2010, September 14). Book Writing Tips #8 – Calls to Action [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EwSUak_6vUU
  4. What is a call to action in persuasive writing? Retrieved from https://www.reference.com/education/call-action-persuasive-writing-a5d2b5a1491d7e12
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Various Techniques to Collect and Analyze Qualitative Data

Discuss various techniques to collect and analyze the qualitative data
by Aminat Abubakar – Friday, 17 February 2017

According to Leedy & Ormrod (2010), the five common qualitative research designs are case study, ethnography, phenomenological study, grounded theory study, and content analysis.

In a case study, the researcher carries detail study on individuals, programs or events; such as in medicine, education, political science, law, psychology, and anthropology. Data collected through observations, interview, documents, past records, and audiovisual materials. Data is then analyzed through detail organization, data categorization, interpretation, identification of patterns, synthesis, and generalizations.

In ethnography, the researcher carries detail study of an entire group that shares a common culture to understand the complexities of a particular socio-cultural group. The researcher gains insight into the significance of the event such as the participants, activities, and meaning attached to it. The researcher can be a full participant observer in the event, or a direct observer taking notes and recording activities. This technique permits the evaluator to present a more comprehensive view of the program by combining his own as well as others perceptions (worldbank.org).

The phenomenological study tries to understand people’s perceptions, perspectives, and understanding of a particular situation (Leedy, 2010, Slide 19). The study takes place through extensive interviews of select sample participants. The analyzed data seeks out common theme amongst peoples’ experiences.

Grounded Theory Study major purpose is to start with the data and use them to develop a theory (Leedy, 2010, Slide 23). The collected data is field based, flexible, and likely to change over time. Data analysis takes place by open coding, axial coding, selective coding, and development of theory.

Content Analysis is a detailed and systematic examination of the contents of a particular body of material for the purpose of identifying patterns, themes, or biases (Leedy, 2010, Slide 28). The study is on human communication such as books, newspapers, films, television, art, and music. The method is systematic and includes identifying study material, a definition of study characteristic, the breakdown of complex material, and scrutiny of material. Tabulation and statistical analysis are methods used to interpret data.

The collection and analysis of qualitative data are time-consuming. The researcher must apply integrity to the method of data collection and analysis.

Overview of Qualitative Research Methods


  1. Leedy P. D., & Ormrod J. E. (2010). Practical Research: Planning and Design, ninth Edition. Chapter 7 PowerPoint Slides. Pearson Education, Inc
  2. Overview of Qualitative Research Methods [Video file]. (2015, August 13). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IsAUNs-IoSQ
  3. Qualitative Methods. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://go.worldbank.org/GTVJ55EPY0
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Future Ready or Future Smart

What do you think is more important – being future ready or future smart?
by Aminat Abubakar – Saturday, 4 February 2017

Both being future ready and future smart are important. Anderson, C., Eastwood, M., Perry, R., Vesset, D., & Villar, (2015, p. 2) in a study described “A “future-ready” organization is one that is always extending the abilities of its IT infrastructure and applications while also pursuing IT organizational practices that enable it to identify and address changing business and technology needs. These future-ready organizations not only react quickly to market changes but also are better able to become disruptors themselves.”

While, Future smart gives you insight into today, learn from the experience, and helps you to predict the future such as changing a business strategy for a business enterprise, and the effect of an innovation into the marketplace. “Future Smart may enable you compete in your business” (Canton, 2015, p. x). Being future smart enables you to be aware of future specific trends, change drivers, and early warning signs before trends emerge.
Future smart makes you predictive, challenges your thinking process forcing you to look ahead for new innovative ideas. The result, “breakthrough ideas for business, innovation, community, and social change” says Canton, (2015, p.x.).

“Future smart requires paying attention to emergent signals, early warnings, news, or consumer behaviors that proceed and later shape trends” (Canton, 2015, p. xi). Future smart is about prediction into the future.
“Future smart is about understanding and exploring the possible scenarios of the future so you will be able to better prepare for it today” (Canton, 2015, p. xii). Being future smart might lead you into disruptive thinking to alter the direction of an entire marketplace, field, or industry.

Future smart three strategic objectives are, “Predicting the future, better preparing for the future, and taking actions to apply this knowledge to create the future” (Canton, 2015, p. xiii). Use the trends to shape the future.
Canton explained, “Becoming Future Ready is preparing, adapting, and learning for the future, and this lead to becoming Future Smart, the end state of readiness” (2015, p. 1).
Are you future ready to become future smart?

Take A Journey To The Year 2020 – 2025 Future Technology

  1. Anderson, C., Eastwood, M., Perry, R., Vesset, D., & Villars, R. (2015, October 30). The Future-Ready Enterprise: Driving Business Results Today While Preparing for the Challenges of Tomorrow, 2. Retrieved from
  2. Canton, J. (2015). Future smart: Managing the game-changing trends that will transform your world. Boston, MA: Da Capo Press
  3. Future Apichet.  (2012, June 18).  Take A Journey To The Year 2020 – 2025 Future Technology [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rU2iTUeCfkI
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