Various Techniques to Collect and Analyze Qualitative Data

Discuss various techniques to collect and analyze the qualitative data
by Aminat Abubakar – Friday, 17 February 2017

According to Leedy & Ormrod (2010), the five common qualitative research designs are case study, ethnography, phenomenological study, grounded theory study, and content analysis.

In a case study, the researcher carries detail study on individuals, programs or events; such as in medicine, education, political science, law, psychology, and anthropology. Data collected through observations, interview, documents, past records, and audiovisual materials. Data is then analyzed through detail organization, data categorization, interpretation, identification of patterns, synthesis, and generalizations.

In ethnography, the researcher carries detail study of an entire group that shares a common culture to understand the complexities of a particular socio-cultural group. The researcher gains insight into the significance of the event such as the participants, activities, and meaning attached to it. The researcher can be a full participant observer in the event, or a direct observer taking notes and recording activities. This technique permits the evaluator to present a more comprehensive view of the program by combining his own as well as others perceptions (

The phenomenological study tries to understand people’s perceptions, perspectives, and understanding of a particular situation (Leedy, 2010, Slide 19). The study takes place through extensive interviews of select sample participants. The analyzed data seeks out common theme amongst peoples’ experiences.

Grounded Theory Study major purpose is to start with the data and use them to develop a theory (Leedy, 2010, Slide 23). The collected data is field based, flexible, and likely to change over time. Data analysis takes place by open coding, axial coding, selective coding, and development of theory.

Content Analysis is a detailed and systematic examination of the contents of a particular body of material for the purpose of identifying patterns, themes, or biases (Leedy, 2010, Slide 28). The study is on human communication such as books, newspapers, films, television, art, and music. The method is systematic and includes identifying study material, a definition of study characteristic, the breakdown of complex material, and scrutiny of material. Tabulation and statistical analysis are methods used to interpret data.

The collection and analysis of qualitative data are time-consuming. The researcher must apply integrity to the method of data collection and analysis.

Overview of Qualitative Research Methods


  1. Leedy P. D., & Ormrod J. E. (2010). Practical Research: Planning and Design, ninth Edition. Chapter 7 PowerPoint Slides. Pearson Education, Inc
  2. Overview of Qualitative Research Methods [Video file]. (2015, August 13). Retrieved from
  3. Qualitative Methods. (n.d.). Retrieved from
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